Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide by using palm oil mill effluent (POME)

Ban Kiat, Tey (2015) Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide by using palm oil mill effluent (POME). Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

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The increase of world palm oil demand has driven a significant increase in palm oil production. Indirectly, palm oil mill effluent (POME) production also has increased drastically. In the material science field, graphene is a marvellous material due to its high specific surface area (theoretically 2630 m2/g for single-layer graphene), extraordinary electronic properties and electron transport capabilities, unprecedented pliability, strong mechanical strength and excellent thermal and electrical conductivities. The abundance β-carotene (strong reducing agent) found in POME can be utilized to synthesize graphene. β-carotene can be used for reduction of graphene oxide instead of hydrazine as this approach is more environmentally friendly. The objectives are to reduce graphene oxide by using β-carotene extracted from POME, optimise the β-carotene concentration to reduce graphene oxide and analyse reduced graphene oxide using Ultraviolet-visible Absorption Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Fabrication of graphene oxide, extraction of β-carotene, and reduced of graphene oxide by β-carotene will be covered in this research. Firstly, the pre-oxidation step was carried out to help to achieve a higher degree of oxidation. Subsequently, the graphite was oxidized by potassium permanganate and undergoes ultrasonication to produce graphene oxide. After that, β-carotene was extracted from POME by using soxhlet extraction. Graphene oxide was reduced by extracted β-carotene from POME and un-treat POME. 4mM of extracted β-carotene was illustrated a successfully reduced result monitored by UV-Vis and FTIR. Quantification of reduced graphene oxide treats by extracted β-carotene from POME has been monitored by using UV-Vis and the peak detected will be shifted from 230 nm to 270 nm. For FTIR analysis, the oxygen associated intensities bands were reduced, such as 3400 cm-1 (for hydroxyl stretching) was completely disappeared in the CrGO spectrum. Besides that, cyclic voltammograms of several types of rGO by applying in the sensor field also have been monitored.

Item Type: Undergraduates Project Papers
Additional Information: Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering Project paper (Bachelor of Chemical Engineering) -- Universiti Malaysia Pahang - 2015
Uncontrolled Keywords: Graphene
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering
Depositing User: Mr. Syed Mohd Faiz Syed Abdul Aziz
Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2015 08:07
Last Modified: 17 Jan 2022 13:16
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