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Predicting the Salt Water Intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab Estuary using an Analytical Approach

Abdullah, Ali D. and Gisen, J. I. A. and Pieter, van der Zaag and Hubert H. G., Savenije and Usama F. A., Karim and Ilyas, Masih and Ioana, Popescu (2016) Predicting the Salt Water Intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab Estuary using an Analytical Approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20 (10). pp. 4031-4042. ISSN 1027-5606

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Abstract

Longitudinal and vertical salinity measurements are used in this study to predict the extent of inland seawater intrusion in a deltaic river estuary. A predictive model is constructed to apply to the specific tidal, seasonal, and discharge variability and geometric characteristics of the Shatt al-Arab River (SAR) situated along the border of Iraq and Iran. Reliable hydrologic simulation of salinity dynamics and seawater intrusion was lacking prior to this study. Tidal excursion is simulated analytically using a 1-D analytical salt intrusion model with recently updated equations for tidal mixing. The model was applied under different river conditions to analyse the seasonal variability of salinity distribution during wet and dry periods near spring and neap tides between March 2014 and January 2015. A good fit is possible with this model between computed and observed salinity distribution. Estimating water abstractions along the estuary improves the performance of the equations, especially at low flows and with a well-calibrated dispersion–excursion relationship of the updated equations. Salt intrusion lengths given the current data varied from 38 to 65 km during the year of observation. With extremely low river discharge, which is highly likely there, we predict a much further distance of 92 km. These new predictions demonstrate that the SAR, already plagued with extreme salinity, may face deteriorating water quality levels in the near future, requiring prompt interventions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Shatt al-Arab River (SAR); salt water; estuary
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Faculty/Division: Centre of Excellence: Centre for Earth Resources Research & Management
Faculty of Civil Engineering & Earth Resources
Depositing User: Dr. Jacqueline Isabella Anak Gisen
Date Deposited: 03 Feb 2017 04:06
Last Modified: 21 May 2018 01:37
URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/16262
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