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Utilization of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate in Methyl Esters Preparation using SO42/TiO2-SiO2 as a Solid Acid Catalyst

Gaanty Pragas, Maniam and Nurul Hajar, Embong and Mohd Hasbi, Ab. Rahim and Lee, Keat Teong and Huisingh, Donald (2016) Utilization of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate in Methyl Esters Preparation using SO42/TiO2-SiO2 as a Solid Acid Catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production, 116. pp. 244-248. ISSN 0959-6526 (print), 1879-1786 (online)

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Abstract

The use of by-products, particularly in the biodiesel industry, has gained much attention owing to their potential in countering higher feedstock costs. A low-value by-product of palm oil refining, the palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), was utilized as a feedstock for biodiesel preparation with the aid of a solid acid catalyst, SO42−/TiO2–SiO2. A central composite design is applied to optimize the major influential manipulate variables. The analysis of variance identifies the methanol/PFAD molar ratio as having a dominant effect on methyl ester conversion, followed by catalyst amount and reaction time respectively. The utilization of PFAD with the aid of a solid acid catalyst results in 93.3 ± 1.02% conversion at the most optimized reaction conditions of 2.97 ± 0.04 wt% for the catalyst amount, 5.85 ± 0.14 methanol/PFAD molar ratio and 3.12 ± 0.14 h of reaction time.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel; Methyl ester; Palm fatty acid distillate; Sulphated solid acid; Response surface methodology; Fine chemical
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Industrial Sciences And Technology
Depositing User: Dr. Gaanty Pragas Maniam
Date Deposited: 28 Feb 2017 07:17
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2018 08:10
URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/16817
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