A New Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst for Esterification: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

Gaanty Pragas, Maniam and Boey, Peng Lim and Shangeetha, Ganesan and Melati, Khairuddean and Efendi, Jon (2013) A New Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst for Esterification: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology. Energy Conversion and Management, 65. pp. 392-396. ISSN 0196-8904. (Published)

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Studies on heterogeneous acid catalysts for converting free fatty acids into biodiesel have been intensified over the years. This paper focuses on the optimization of a new catalyst system, ferric-alginate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst to esterify lauric acid into methyl laurate. Methanol to lauric acid molar ratio and catalyst amount was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The best reaction conditions to achieve methyl laurate yield of 99% was found to be 0.16:1 ferric-alginate to lauric acid mass ratio and 16:1 methanol to lauric acid molar ratio. The reaction time and temperature was fixed at 3 h and methanol refluxing temperature, respectively. The optimized reaction conditions were also used to esterify palm fatty acid distillate to give 89% methyl esters conversion. The acid value of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) was reduced from 228 to 0.8 mg KOH/g PFAD.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Free fatty acids; Esterification; Ferric-alginate; Methyl esters; Palm fatty acid distillate
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Industrial Sciences And Technology
Depositing User: Dr. Gaanty Pragas Maniam
Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2013 07:08
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2017 02:31
URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/4085
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