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Preparation and characterization of catalyst from local industry waste, red gypsum for biodiesel synthesis

Lai Kin Ming, Vera (2013) Preparation and characterization of catalyst from local industry waste, red gypsum for biodiesel synthesis. Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

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Red gypsum, a reddish brown semi-solid mud is a waste product of local industry in Malaysia which is formed during the extraction of titanium (IV) oxide from the ilmenite ores and they are accumulating in landfill and polluting the environment.The total accumulation of red gypsum in Malaysia is at least 340,000 tons per year. This research is done to find an end use for red gypsum waste that has been land filling and polluting the environment. At the same time there is a crucial need to find an alternative fuel in fulfilling energy demand to replace fossil fuels which are undergoing drastic depletion. The best option is biodiesel which shows almost same properties like fossil fuels and most importantly it is environmental friendly. The major composition of red gypsum are CaSO4.2H2O (70 wt %), Fe2O3 (30 wt %) and small amount of Al2O3 is a potential source for catalyst production which later can be used as solid base catalysts in biodiesel production. The objectives of this research are to produce and characterize catalyst from waste red gypsum and study the activity of catalyst for esterification of FFA. Preparation of catalyst from red gypsum through heat treatment in furnace using activated carbon as reducing agent was investigated in this work. Characterization of the catalyst produced is done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The performance of the activity of the catalyst produced is studied by esterification of oleic acid with ethanol in a 1:6 molar ratio. Different amount of catalyst is used ; 5%,3% and 1% weight catalyst of oleic acid to find the free fatty acid, FFA conversion and the catalyst activity is studied based on the result obtained.

Item Type: Undergraduates Project Papers
Additional Information: Project paper (Bachelor of Chemical Engineering) -- Universiti Malaysia Pahang – 2013
Uncontrolled Keywords: Gypsum Biodiesel fuels
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering
Depositing User: Ms. Hazima Anuar
Date Deposited: 11 Nov 2014 02:26
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2021 07:00
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