Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Using Activated Cement Clinker as Catalyst

Jolius, Gimbun and Ali, Shahid and Kanwal, Chitra Charan Suri Charan and Liyana, Amer Shah and Nurul Hidayah, Muhamad Ghazali and Cheng, C. K. and Said, N. (2013) Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Using Activated Cement Clinker as Catalyst. Procedia Engineering, 53. pp. 13-19. ISSN 1877-7058. (Published)

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This paper presents the potential of limestone based catalyst for transesterification of high free fatty acid (FFA) rubber seed oil (RSO). Pre-calcinated limestone known as clinker was activated using methanol and transesterification was performed under reflux with constant stirring. Mineral composition of the catalyst was analysed using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) with in build x-ray diffraction (XRD). The rubber seed oil was obtained using both microwave and soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. FFA content and fatty acid methyl ester content were determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed an efficient conversion (up to 96.9) of high FFA rubber seed oil to biodiesel. The results suggest that the catalyst employed in this work is not negatively affected by moisture and free fatty acids and can be recycled very easily without significant loss in its activity. The highest conversion of 96.9 was achieved from catalyst activated at 700°C, with catalyst loading of 5 wt. ; methanol to oil molar ratio of 4:1; reaction temperature of 65°C and reaction time of 4 hours. The biodiesel produced in this work is within the limits of specification described by American standard test method (ASTM D6751). © 2013 The Authors.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012, MUCET
Uncontrolled Keywords: Clinker; rubber seed oil; microwave
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Centre of Excellence: Centre of Excellence for Advanced Research in Fluid Flow
Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering
Depositing User: Prof. Dr. Jolius Gimbun
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2016 03:26
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2017 02:53
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