Three layer authentications with a spiral block mapping to prove authenticity in medical images

Ernawan, Ferda and Aminuddin, Afrig and Eh Phon, Danakorn Nincarean and Mohd Faizal, Ab Razak and Ahmad Firdaus, Zainal Abidin (2022) Three layer authentications with a spiral block mapping to prove authenticity in medical images. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA), 13 (4). pp. 211-223. ISSN 2158-107X; 2156-5570(Online). (Published)

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Digital medical image has a potential to be manipulated by unauthorized persons due to advanced communication technology. Verifying integrity and authenticity have become important issues on the medical image. This paper proposed a self-embedding watermark using a spiral block mapping for tamper detection and restoration. The block-based coding with the size of 3x3 was applied to perform selfembedding watermark with two authentication bits and seven recovery bits. The authentication bits are obtained from a set of condition between sub-block and block image, and the parity bits of each sub-block. The authentication bits and the recovery bits are embedded in the least significant bits using the proposed spiral block mapping. The recovery bits are embedded into different sub-blocks based on a spiral block mapping. The watermarked images were tested under various tampered images such as blurred image, unsharp-masking, copy-move, mosaic, noise, removal, and sharpening. The experimental results show that the scheme achieved a PSNR value of about 51.29 dB and a SSIM value of about 0.994 on the watermarked image. The scheme showed tamper localization with accuracy of 93.8%. In addition, the proposed scheme does not require external information to perform recovery bits. The proposed scheme was able to recover the tampered image with a PSNR value of 40.45 dB and a SSIM value of 0.994.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Indexed by Scopus
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fragile watermarking; Image authentication; Medical image; Self-embedding; Self-recovery; Spiral block mapping
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA76 Computer software
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Computing
Depositing User: Mr Muhamad Firdaus Janih@Jaini
Date Deposited: 07 Nov 2022 07:41
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2022 07:41
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