Analysis of illicit drugs in municipal wastewater using LCMS/MS: A method validation study

Mohammad Azimuddin, Izani and Nurul `Azyyati, Sabri and Nurul Nadiah, Hamidon and Kooi, Yeong Khaw and Iekhsan, Othman and Mueller, Jochen and Tay, Joo Hui (2023) Analysis of illicit drugs in municipal wastewater using LCMS/MS: A method validation study. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 27 (1). pp. 1-7. ISSN 1394-2506. (Published)


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An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of five illicit drugs, namely amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and morphine (MOR) in municipal wastewater has been optimized and validated. Sample preparation was performed using Oasis MCX SPE cartridges. LC separation was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 RRHD column. The linearity of the calibration curve was between 5 ng/mL and 250 ng/mL, with determination coefficient (R2 ) greater than 0.99, except for morphine. The mean recoveries of target analytes ranged from 91.6 to 112%, and the method demonstrated good inter-day repeatability (coefficient of variation, CV ranged from 2 to 19%). The limit of detection (LOD) for AM, MA, MDMA, MDA, and MOR was 0.29, 0.37, 0.86, 1.09 and 7.56 ng/mL, respectively. The method was applied to municipal wastewater samples collected from sewage treatment plants in Kuantan, Pahang, in which AM, MA and MDA were detected in all 3 samples.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Indexed by Scopus
Uncontrolled Keywords: Amphetamine; Illicit drugs; LC-MS/MS; Methamphetamine; Municipal wastewater
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Industrial Sciences And Technology
Institute of Postgraduate Studies
Depositing User: Dr. Joo Hui Tay
Date Deposited: 13 Jul 2023 07:14
Last Modified: 13 Jul 2023 07:14
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