Characterisation of Malaysia agarwood oil (aquilaria sp.) and comparison with different origins based on sensory studies

Erny Haslina, Abd Latib (2023) Characterisation of Malaysia agarwood oil (aquilaria sp.) and comparison with different origins based on sensory studies. PhD thesis, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Contributors, Thesis advisor: Saiful Nizam, Tajuddin).

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Agarwood has wide applications for medicine, aromatherapy, perfume, cosmetics, and incense. One of the primary issues in the agarwood trading industry is difficult to identify the grade and quality accurately as there is no standard reference. Therefore, this study aims to analyze and compare the chemical profile of agarwood oil from different origins (Malaysia, India, Cambodia, and Thailand) using gas chromatography analysis. The identification and validation of the selected marker compounds based on the distribution of chemical constituents among the samples were carried out using preparative gas chromatography (Prep-GC). The evaluation of the odor profile from the fabricated electronic nose (E-nose) was conducted for different grades of agarwood oil as a preliminary assessment. The extraction was carried out using the Taguchi method as the design of experiment for fabricated hydrodistillation. The results show that highest yield was achieved from sample EX8 with 1.05 g of agarwood oil. The extraction of EX8 was conducted at 14 days of soaking time, 16 h of extraction time, and a soaking ratio of 1:8 (sample:water). Overall, sesquiterpenoid compounds were identified as the major compound in a high-grade sample, which contradicted low-grade agarwood oil. The major sesquiterpenoid compounds identified in the samples were norketoagarofuran, selina-4,11-dien-14-oic acid, epi-α-cadinol, kusunol, agarospirol, 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, α-agarofuran, guaia-1(10),11-dien-15-ol, α-eudesmol, bulnesol, guaiol, 9,11-eremophiladien-8-one, rotundone, and selina-3,11-dien-9-one. Agarospirol and nhexadecanoic acid were selected as the marker compounds and further isolated using Prep-GC. Finally, the odor profiles of agarwood oil samples were successfully developed by the E-nose based on sensory studies. This study provides a reference for agarwood oil from different origins, specifically from Malaysia, India, Cambodia, and Thailand based on the distribution of chemical constituents toward standardizing the grade and quality. In addition, a study on odor profile response from the fabricated E-nose provides fundamental results for the development of a systematic instrument for the assessment of the grade and quality of agarwood oil in the agarwood industry.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information: Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy) -- Universiti Malaysia Pahang – 2023, SV: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saiful Nizam Tajuddin, NO.CD: 13369
Uncontrolled Keywords: agarwood
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
T Technology > T Technology (General)
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Industrial Sciences And Technology
Institute of Postgraduate Studies
Depositing User: Mr. Nik Ahmad Nasyrun Nik Abd Malik
Date Deposited: 09 Nov 2023 07:28
Last Modified: 09 Nov 2023 07:28
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