Electrodialysis desalination: The impact of solution flowrate (or Reynolds number) on fluid dynamics throughout membrane spacers

Al-Amshawee, Sajjad Khudhur Abbas and Mohd Yusri, Mohd Yunus (2023) Electrodialysis desalination: The impact of solution flowrate (or Reynolds number) on fluid dynamics throughout membrane spacers. Environmental Research, 219 (115115). pp. 1-17. ISSN 0013-9351. (Published)

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The incorporation of a spacer among membranes has a major influence on fluid dynamics and performance metrics. Spacers create feed channels and operate as turbulence promoters to increase mixing and reduce concentration/temperature polarization effects. However, spacer geometry remains unoptimized, and studies continue to investigate a wide range of commercial and custom-made spacer designs. The in-depth discussion of the present systematic review seeks to discover the influence of Reynolds number or solution flowrate on flow hydrodynamics throughout a spacer-filled channel. A fast-flowing solution sweeping one membrane's surface first, then the neighboring membrane's surface produces good mixing action, which does not happen commonly at laminar solution flowrates. A sufficient flowrate can suppress the polarization layer, which may normally require the utilization of a simple feed channel rather than complex spacer configurations. When a recirculation eddy occurs, it disrupts the continuous flow and effectively curves the linear fluid courses. The higher the flowrate, the better the membrane performance, the higher the critical flux (or recovery rate), and the lower the inherent limitations of spacer design, spacer shadow effect, poor channel hydrodynamics, and high concentration polarization. In fact, critical flow achieves an acceptable balance between improving flow dynamics and reducing the related trade-offs, such as pressure losses and the occurrence of concentration polarization throughout the cell. If the necessary technical flowrate is not used, the real concentration potential for transport is relatively limited at low velocities than would be predicted based on bulk concentrations. Electrodialysis stack therefore may suffer from the dissociation of water molecules. Next studies should consider that applying a higher flowrate results in greater process efficiency, increased mass transfer potential at the membrane interface, and reduced stack thermal and electrical resistance, where pressure drop should always be indicated as a consequence of the spacer and circumstances used, rather than a problem.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Indexed by Scopus
Uncontrolled Keywords: Electrodialysis desalination technology; Fluid dynamics; Mass transfer; Membrane spacer; Solution flowrate; Wastewater treatment
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Centre for Sustainability of Ecosystem & Earth Resources (Earth Centre)
Institute of Postgraduate Studies
Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering Technology
Depositing User: Ms. Nurul Ain Ismail
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2024 01:09
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2024 01:09
URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/39946
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