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A New Catalyst System in Transesterification of Palm Olein: Tolerance of Water and Free Fatty Acids

Gaanty Pragas, Maniam and Shangeetha, Ganesan and Boey, Peng Lim and Melati, Khairuddean and Sau-Lai, Lim (2012) A New Catalyst System in Transesterification of Palm Olein: Tolerance of Water and Free Fatty Acids. Energy Conversion and Management, 56 . pp. 46-52. ISSN 0196-8904

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Abstract

Boiler ash (BA) from oil palm empty fruit bunches used as pseudo-homogeneous base catalyst to transesterify palm olein at mild reaction conditions (3 wt.% BA dried at 105 C, 2 h; 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at methanol refluxing temperature in 0.5 h) yielded 90% methyl esters. However, the catalyst showed low water (0 wt.%) and FFA (1 wt.%) tolerance. Laboratory calcium oxide (Lab CaO, calcined at 900 C, 2 h) was used as a drying agent and to enhance the FFA tolerance of BA. Transesterification with Lab CaO (5 wt.% Lab-CaO; 13:1 methanol to oil molar ratio) exhibited good tolerance towards 3 wt.% water and 4 wt.% FFA but only 67% methyl esters were produced in 0.5 h. A mixture of BA-Lab CaO (stoichiometric ratio for Ca(OH)2 formation) catalyzed transesterification yielded 95% methyl esters in 0.5 h and with higher water (3 wt.%) and FFA (4 wt.%) tolerance.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Empty fruit bunch boiler ash; Calcium oxide; Transesterification; Base catalysts
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Industrial Sciences And Technology
Unspecified
Depositing User: Dr. Gaanty Pragas Maniam
Date Deposited: 24 Sep 2013 07:44
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2017 02:32
URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/4090
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