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Crab and Cockle Shells as Catalysts for the Preparation of Methyl Esters from Low Free Fatty Acid Chicken Fat

Gaanty Pragas, Maniam and Boey, Peng Lim and Shafida, Abd Hamid and Mohamed Hag Ali, Dafaalla (2012) Crab and Cockle Shells as Catalysts for the Preparation of Methyl Esters from Low Free Fatty Acid Chicken Fat. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 88 (Issue ). pp. 283-288. ISSN 0003-021X (Print), 1558-9331 (Online)

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Abstract

The use of waste oils/fats, as well as catalysts from waste materials, for producing biodiesel via transesterification have been of recent interest. As such, in the present work, the transesterification of chicken fat using crab and cockle shells as a catalyst was attempted. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that, upon thermal activation, both shells transformed into CaO, the active ingredient that catalyzes the reaction. In addition, the catalytic performance of individual shells as well as the combination of both shells in various ratios was similar. Under the optimal reaction conditions of 4.9 wt% catalyst amount and 0.55:1 methanol to oil mass ratio, methyl esters conversion above 98% was achieved in 3 h. The chicken fat methyl esters that were produced were found to meet several key specifications of biodiesel based on EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 test procedures.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel; Transesterification; Chicken fat; Crab shell; Cockle shell; Methyl ester
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Industrial Sciences And Technology
Depositing User: Dr. Gaanty Pragas Maniam
Date Deposited: 23 Sep 2013 03:52
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2017 02:32
URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/4185
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