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Eco-Conversion of castor oil to Trimethylolpropane ester using non-and impregnated chicken egg shells (N-ICES)

Said, N. and M. V., Sivaguru and N., Ibrahim and Zulkafli, Hassan and Mohd Bijarimi, Mat Piah and Misebah, Fatimah A. (2018) Eco-Conversion of castor oil to Trimethylolpropane ester using non-and impregnated chicken egg shells (N-ICES). In: 4th International Conference Of Chemical Engineering And Industrial Biotechnology (ICCEIB 2018), 1-2 Aug 2018 , Seri Pacific Hotel, Kuala Lumpur. pp. 554-556..

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Abstract

Castor oil as non-edible vegetable feedstock has high viscosity, which is found and distributed widely around the earth, has been becoming interesting issues for its conversion to trimethylpropane (TMP)-ester. The eco-conversion of castor oil was conducted in a bath stirrer flask via two-steps catalytic transesterification. Reactions of castor oil methyl ester (COME) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) were run under non- and impregnated eggshell (N-ICES) catalysts. Effects of catalyst loading, ratio of COME and TMP, reaction time and temperature were also observed. The highest TMP-ester conversion (98.90%) with triester composition (71.4%) was found by the COME and TMP ratio of 1:4, time of 3 h, temperature of 110°C and catalyst loading of 3 wt/wt%. Physico-chemical properties of resulted TMP-ester, mainly density of 924.70 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity at 40°C of 65.77 mm2/s are commensurable with another renewable sources, catalysts and proposed lubricant standards. The impregnated chicken egg shell confers marvellous results compared non-impregnated shells performance, and the recyclable boths catalysts can be visualized for destiny lucrative engine oil.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Lecture)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Eco-Conversion ; Trimethylolpropane ; Impregnated chicken egg shells (N-ICES)
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering
Depositing User: Mrs. Neng Sury Sulaiman
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2019 08:45
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2019 08:45
URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/23707
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