Engineering principles and process designs for phosphorus recovery as struvite: A comprehensive review

Nageshwari, Krishnamoorthy and Baishali, Dey and Yuwalee, Unpaprom and Rameshprabu, Ramaraj and Gaanty Pragas, Maniam and Natanamurugaraj, Govindan and Sivaraman, Jayaraman and Thirugnanam, Arunachalam and Balasubramanian, Paramasivan (0030) Engineering principles and process designs for phosphorus recovery as struvite: A comprehensive review. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 9 (5). ISSN 2213-3437. (Published)


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The rising population relies heavily on expensive phosphate (P) fertilizers for its agricultural productivity that qualms the national food security. Globally, there is a growing concern for the profound reliance on finite phosphorite reservoirs for commercial phosphate fertilizers’ qualitative and quantitative production. On the contrary, uncontrolled discharging of nutrient-rich wastewaters into natural streams, affecting the aquatic ecosystem. These critical situations have caused a scientific threat that has forced the researchers to explore other opportunities for the conservation of nutrient resources, recovery, and recycling. This review examines the nutrient recovery paradigms for struvite production by curtailing the nutrient gap between wastewater treatment and agricultural productivity. It comprehends the fundamental chemistry, thermodynamics, and factors influencing the struvite production process with its detailed mechanisms. Further, it deliberates the possible struvite engineering strategies, including process designs to enhance P recovery at the lab, pilot, and commercial scale. Also, it emphasizes the applications of nutrient-loaded struvite as a slow-release fertilizer and the challenges associated with economic feasibility and scaling up of the process in recent decades.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Struvite; Phosphorous recovery; Nitrogen; Slow-release fertilizer; Process design; Scale-up
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Industrial Sciences And Technology
Institute of Postgraduate Studies
Depositing User: Ms. Ratna Wilis Haryati Mustapa
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2022 07:48
Last Modified: 29 Apr 2022 07:48
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