Fungal fermented palm kernel expeller as feed for black soldier fly larvae in producing protein and biodiesel

Liew, Chin Seng and Wong, Chung Yiin and Abdelfattah, Eman A. and Raksasat, Ratchaprapa and Rawindran, Hemamalini and Lim, Jun Wei and Kiatkittipong, Worapon and Kiatkittipong, Kunlanan and Mohamad, Mardawani and Yek, Peter Nai Yuh and Herma Dina, Setiabudi and Chin, Kui Cheng and Lam, Su Shiung (2022) Fungal fermented palm kernel expeller as feed for black soldier fly larvae in producing protein and biodiesel. Journals of Fungi, 8 (4). pp. 1-12. ISSN 2309-608X. (Published)

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Being the second-largest country in the production of palm oil, Malaysia has a massive amount of palm kernel expeller (PKE) leftover. For that purpose, black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are thus employed in this study to valorize the PKE waste. More specifically, this work elucidated the effects of the pre-fermentation of PKE via different amounts of Rhizopus oligosporus to enhance PKE palatability for the feeding of BSFL. The results showed that fermentation successfully enriched the raw PKE and thus contributed to the better growth of BSFL. BSFL grew to be 34% heavier at the optimum inoculum volume of 0.5 mL/10 g dry weight of PKE as compared to the control. Meanwhile, excessive fungal inoculum induced competition between BSFL and R. oligosporus, resulting in a reduction in BSFL weight. Under optimum feeding conditions, BSFL also registered the highest lipid yield (24.7%) and protein yield (44.5%). The biodiesel derived from BSFL lipid had also shown good compliance with the European biodiesel standard EN 14214. The high saturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0) in derived biodiesel made it highly oxidatively stable. Lastly, the superior degradation rate of PKE executed by BSFL further underpinned the sustainable conversion process in attaining valuable larval bioproducts.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Index by Scopus
Uncontrolled Keywords: CCD; Hydrogen; Optimization; Photocatalyst; RSM
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculty/Division: Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering
Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering Technology
Depositing User: Pn. Hazlinda Abd Rahman
Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2022 08:00
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2022 08:00
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