Antibacterial mechanism with consequent cytotoxicity of different reinforcements in biodegradable magnesium and zinc alloys : A review

Shahed, Chowdhury Ahmed and Faiz, Ahmad and Günister, Ebru and Farhana, Mohd Foudzi and Ali, Saad and Malik, Khurshid and Wan Sharuzi, Wan Harun (2023) Antibacterial mechanism with consequent cytotoxicity of different reinforcements in biodegradable magnesium and zinc alloys : A review. Journal of Magnesium and Alloys. pp. 1-21. ISSN 2213-9567. (Published)

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Benefits achieved by the biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) implants could be suppressed due to the invasion of infectious microbial, common bacteria, and fungi. Postoperative medications and the antibacterial properties of pure Mg and Zn are insufficient against biofilm and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, bringing osteomyelitis, necrosis, and even death. This study evaluates the antibacterial performance of biodegradable Mg and Zn alloys of different reinforcements, including silver (Ag), copper (Cu), lithium (Li), and gallium (Ga). Copper ions (Cu2+) can eradicate biofilms and antibiotic-resistant bacteria by extracting electrons from the cellular structure. Silver ion (Ag+) kills bacteria by creating bonds with the thiol group. Gallium ion (Ga3+) inhibits ferric ion (Fe3+) absorption, leading to nutrient deficiency and bacterial death. Nanoparticles and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can penetrate bacteria cell walls directly, develop bonds with receptors, and damage nucleotides. Antibacterial action depends on the alkali nature of metal ions and their degradation rate, which often causes cytotoxicity in living cells. Therefore, this review emphasizes the insight into degradation rate, antibacterial mechanism, and their consequent cytotoxicity and observes the correlation between antibacterial performance and oxidation number of metal ions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Indexed by Scopus
Uncontrolled Keywords: Antibacterial mechanism; Biodegradable materials; Biomedical implants; Cytotoxicity; Reactive oxygen species
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Faculty/Division: College of Engineering
Faculty of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering Technology
Depositing User: Mr Muhamad Firdaus Janih@Jaini
Date Deposited: 14 Nov 2023 02:32
Last Modified: 14 Nov 2023 02:32
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